Condenser microphones are the most common type of microphone used for recording vocals, acoustic guitars, and other acoustic instruments. These microphones work by using a thin diaphragm that vibrates in response to sound waves. The diaphragm is charged with an electric current, which creates an electrical signal that is amplified and converted into sound.
Condenser microphones are known for their sensitivity and accuracy, making them ideal for capturing subtle details in sound recordings. They are also more expensive than dynamic microphones and require an external power source, either through batteries or phantom power from an audio interface or mixing console. Examples of condenser microphones include the Neumann U87 and the AKG C414.